- Canada succeeded in vaccinating 72% of its population through the end of the month, followed closely by the U.K. (70%), and then France (63%), Germany (62%) and the U.S. (58%).
- Despite a tremendous amount of excess savings and pent-up demand in North America and Europe, investors could once again grow cautious of riskier asset classes if COVID-19 infection rates spike severely enough.
Globally, equities started the second half of 2021 with mixed performance. Developed markets generated positive returns for July, but emerging markets declined sharply—led by China’s double-digit losses.
Long-simmering concerns about high debt levels, heavy-handed regulation and the decoupling of U.S. and Chinese markets came into focus during July due to growing debt-driven troubles for China Evergrande Group, one of the country’s largest property developers; a forced conversion of education companies from for-profits to non-profits; the imposition of new regulations on food-delivery apps; a demand that major technology company Tencent cancel licensing deals with numerous record labels; and the disappearance of Chinese ride-sharing app Didi Global from the country’s app stores right after its U.S. trading debut.
Health care was the best-performing sector across global equities in July, followed by information technology. Energy stocks declined sharply. The price of West Texas Intermediate crude oil was practically unchanged after a volatile month—initially selling off almost 10%, and then rebounding, from an announcement by OPEC+ (the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries led by Saudi Arabia, plus Russia) that production will increase again in August.
Government-bond rates declined across most maturities in the U.S., U.K. and eurozone during July, with longer-term rates falling by more than shorter-term rates. U.S. Treasury inflation-protected securities (TIPS) outpaced most other fixed-income asset classes. Nominal Treasurys and investment-grade corporates also performed well as rates declined. Local-currency emerging-market debt (EMD) fell, while foreign-currency EMD, high-yield and asset-backed securities (ABS) had relatively modest gains.
The U.S. reported approximately 80,000 new COVID-19 infections per day at the end of July—more than any other country, and double the second highest daily rate of 40,000 recorded in both India and Indonesia. A large share of Africa and East Asia remained at or near peak country-level infection rates, while South America’s spread eased. Indonesia suffered the largest number of COVID-19-related deaths per day at the end of the month (1,200), followed by Brazil (987) and Russia (783).
Canada succeeded in vaccinating 72% of its population through the end of July; the U.K. closely followed with a rate of 70%, while smaller percentages were vaccinated in France (63%), Germany (62%) and the U.S. (58%).
At the end of the month, the U.S. Senate voted to begin negotiations about a bipartisan infrastructure plan. Formally called the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, the plan includes roughly $1 trillion with $550 billion in new spending over a five-year period. It is projected to add approximately two million jobs per year for a decade as the nation undertakes modernizing roads, railways, ports, public transit, airports and power grids; improving water quality and broadband access; and cleaning abandoned environmentally hazardous sites.
Despite its high cost, funding the plan does not call for broad-based individual or corporate tax increases. In a rare demonstration of widespread support, a long list of business and labor organizations—including the U.S. Chamber of Commerce (the largest U.S. business lobbying organization) and the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO, the largest U.S. labor union group)—offered a joint endorsement of the deal in early July.
Finance ministers and central bank leaders from the Group of 20 (G-20), representing the world’s 20 largest economies, unanimously agreed to endorse the major components of a tax plan that would establish a global minimum corporate tax of at least 15%. Finalization of the plan requires approval from national leaders. In deference to this effort, EU officials postponed review of its digital levy proposal until autumn.
- Manufacturing growth in the U.S. pushed further into uncharted territory during July, with extreme levels of supply backlogs pushing input costs higher at a record pace.
- U.S. services growth remained strong in July, but continued to moderate from May’s dizzying peak.
- New claims for U.S. jobless benefits hovered around 400,000 per week during July.
- Overall U.S. economic growth measured an annualized 6.5% during the second quarter, just above the first-quarter pace of 6.3%.
- Manufacturing activity in the U.K. expanded rapidly in July, but continued to settle from May’s peak as supply and labor shortfalls held back overall growth.
- U.K. services activity followed the same path—growing at a strong pace in July, but slowing since May’s high point.
- The U.K. claimant count (which calculates the number of people claiming Jobseeker’s Allowance) declined to 5.8% of the population in June from 6% in May as the total number of claimants decreased from 2.44 million to 2.32 million.
- The broad U.K. economy grew by 0.8% during May, representing the fourth straight month of expansion following a downtrend that persisted from November 2020 through January 2021.
- Eurozone manufacturing remained at red-hot growth levels in July, albeit just below the record pace set in June, as all countries besides Germany reported slower growth.
- Eurozone services growth continued to accelerate through July, hitting the fastest pace since June 2006.
- The eurozone unemployment rate fell to 7.7% in June from 8.0% during May.
- The overall eurozone economy grew by 2.0% during the second quarter and 13.7% year over year, representing a marked improvement over the first quarter’s respective rates of -0.3% and -1.3%.
- The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) made no changes following its late-July meeting but reported that progress had been made toward its goals for employment and inflation. Federal Reserve (Fed) Chairman Jerome Powell shared that the FOMC debated when and how to taper its asset purchases of $80 billion in Treasurys and $40 billion in agency mortgage-backed securities per month. The Fed also announced a standing repurchase-agreement (repo) facility with a daily capacity of $500 billion to extend liquidity to primary dealer banks in exchange for high-quality collateral. It indicated plans to establish a similar facility for other central banks as well.
- The Bank of England’s (BOE) Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) did not hold a July meeting; the bank rate remained 0.1% and the £895 billion maximum allowance for asset purchases was unchanged.
- The European Central Bank (ECB) unveiled the results of its strategy review in early July, adopting a symmetric inflation target of 2% over the medium-term, meaning that it views deviations above or below its target as undesirable and that it anticipates fluctuations over shorter time frames. At its late-July monetary-policy meeting, the ECB maintained its expectation that purchases under the pandemic emergency purchase programme (PEPP) will be conducted at a significantly higher pace than during the first months of the year. Purchases averaged about €80 billion per month during the second quarter after running closer to a monthly pace of €60 billion during the first quarter. The ECB also said it expects to continue its pre-pandemic asset purchase programme at a pace of €20 billion per month.
- The Bank of Japan (BOJ) adjusted its outlook at its mid-July meeting; growth expectations were lowered for 2021 and increased for 2022 as the country’s recovery is projected to take longer, and inflation is estimated to increase for both calendar years. The BOJ also shared details about its green loan initiative, including extending 0% interest-rate credit to banks for their “green” lending efforts, waiving punitive negative interest rates for associated bank reserve requirements, and allowing foreign-currency bonds issued by Japanese companies to be eligible for the programme.
U.S. stocks diverged along capitalization lines in July, with large caps continuing to climb while small caps declined. Our U.S. large-cap strategies1 lagged their benchmarks for the month as growth-oriented stocks led value stocks, although exposure to stability-oriented stocks contributed. An overweight to financials and an underweight to information technology detracted, as did stock selection in healthcare and consumer staples. Our U.S. small-cap strategies outpaced their benchmarks, where value and growth declined in tandem for July. Underweighting biotechnology contributed, as did selection in health care, technology and industrials. Overseas, our international developed-market strategy lagged the benchmark, which gained as European stocks outpaced declining Asian stocks. Our value orientation held back the strategy as value gave back ground to growth outside of the U.S. as well. Our emerging-market equity strategy succeeded in limiting its losses in July. It benefited from value and momentum exposures as emerging markets fell during the month; an underweight to plummeting Chinese internet and e-commerce companies also contributed.
Our core fixed-income strategy essentially matched its benchmark during July despite the fact that all non-government fixed-income sectors trailed comparable U.S. Treasurys. An overweight to the long end of the yield curve contributed as long-term yields declined (yields and prices have an inverse relationship). An overweight to corporates (concentrated in financials) detracted, although selection within industrials was beneficial. While ABS underperformed the benchmark, our overweight was favorable given the concentration within student loans and higher-quality securitizations. Exposure to commercial mortgage-backed securities (CMBS) was also beneficial due to a higher-quality bias; an underweight to agency mortgage backed-securities (MBS) helped as Fed officials raised questions about the need for supporting the mortgage market. Our high-yield strategy performed in line with its benchmark for the month. An allocation to collateralized loan obligations was the top contributor, followed by selection in retail and an underweight to leisure. Selection in energy, media and telecommunications detracted. Our EMD strategy lagged its blended benchmark in July as exposure to weakening local currencies (Korean won, Malaysian ringgit) detracted.
Manager Positioning and Opportunities
Eyes are now on the COVID-19 Delta variant and consequent rising cases in many parts of the U.S., exacerbated by the sharp slowdown in vaccination rates. Still, the economic recovery appears to be persistently strong, and more fiscal stimulus is expected to come out of Washington for traditional infrastructure. Fluctuations in the state of the pandemic will likely spark market volatility, but we are also cognizant of the risks associated with elevated valuations of varying degrees across asset classes, as well as the potential for macro events such as changes in the corporate tax rate.
Our large-cap strategies continued to underweight some of the largest companies in favor of attractively valued opportunities further down the capitalization spectrum. We remained overweight to the materials and financials sectors due to improving profitability and attractive valuations. July’s small-cap selloff may be attributable to the greater risk of a stumble in the reopening trade. Our small-cap strategies continued to favor value since it has a long way to appreciate before coming back into line with its historical performance versus growth. Our international developed-market equity strategy was overweight technology and consumer discretionary, while underweight defensive sectors like financials (lack of strong barriers to entry) and real estate (limited growth opportunities relative to valuations). Regionally, it was overweight Europe and North America, and was underweight Japan, the UK and the broader Pacific region. Our emerging-market equity strategy remained overweight information technology (underappreciated growth opportunities in semiconductors and 5G) and materials (renewed demand for metals), and underweight healthcare (company-specific drivers), communication services (high valuations) and consumer staples (limited growth opportunities). At the regional level, the strategy was overweight Taiwan and Korea, and underweight China and Saudi Arabia.
With long-term yields still near historically low levels, our core fixed-income strategy continued to adjust its yield-curve posture—gradually reducing an overweight to the 25-to-30-year segment of the yield curve and increasing exposure in the 5-to-10-year segment. Our primary overweight—corporate financials—has slowly decreased over the last 15 months as spreads have narrowed. Overweights to ABS and CMBS remained (emphasizing higher-quality holdings) given attractive risk-adjusted yields. We maintained an allocation to non-agency MBS, and have continued to underweight agency MBS since decreasing our exposure during the second quarter as the Fed began to talk about tapering purchases. Our high-yield strategy’s largest position remained an allocation to CLOs, which we continue to view as attractive—particularly given the high yields on lower-rated debt and equity tranches. Our largest underweights were within telecommunications and capital goods. Our EMD strategy retained an overweight to local-currency assets, with top country-level overweights to Mexico, Egypt and South Korea. The most significant underweights were to Saudi Arabia, Thailand and China.
Equity markets have long anticipated the economic improvement we are watching unfold. There is increasing concern, however, that equity prices have risen so much that there is little appreciation potential left, even if the global economy continues to forge ahead into 2022.
Since mid-June, we have witnessed a partial unwinding of the rotation trade (from expensive technology-oriented stay-at-home companies to less-expensive cyclically-oriented companies) that began last autumn. So far, this appears to us as a temporary pause in a longer-term upswing. The global recovery and expansion have a long way to go, especially since many countries are still imposing lockdown measures to varying degrees.
We can’t rule out a choppier and more lackluster performance for U.S. equities in the months ahead given their strong outperformance since March 2009 and elevated stock-market valuations relative to much of the rest of the world. If stock-market volatility does increase, we don’t think there’s reason to be overly concerned; corrections that range from 5% to 10% can occur without any fundamental reason.
In today’s environment, with economies opening up around the globe and interest rates still at extraordinarily low levels, the dominant trend favors further price gains over the next year or two. Still, investors must take into account that the U.S. economy appears to have reached “peak growth.”
Growth slowdowns, not just recessions, can lead to equity underperformance versus bonds. The relative performance of equities versus bonds was phenomenal over the past 16 months; a major narrowing of the performance gap is inevitable. Yet, with interest rates still at exceptionally low levels, it is hard to see equities losing ground to fixed-income securities while economic growth remains robust. Not only should consumer demand remain strong as long as economies continue to reopen, but businesses have been in a spending mood—desperately seeking materials and workers.
In the meantime, companies are expected to enjoy a great deal of pricing power and will almost certainly pass along at least a portion of their increased costs to customers. Unfortunately, one person’s pricing power is another person’s inflation. The big question is whether the price pressures seen this year are transitory, as central bankers around the world say they are.
Investors in the bond market seem to agree with the central bankers. Although U.S. bond yields rose sharply in the first quarter, they have since fallen. There’s no telling how long bond investors will maintain such a calm perspective if inflation persists at a pace not seen in almost 30 years.
Fed Chairman Jerome Powell has continued to reiterate that the U.S. labor market has a long way to go before it reaches full employment. Job openings in the country are now soaring. If the rise in the Employment Cost Index accelerates as we expect, inflation could become a greater concern for investors.
The recent stumble in the rotation theme was exacerbated by the marginally hawkish shift in Fed expectations. It is clear, however, that the U.S. central bank intends to cautiously move away from its current policy stance. The first move will likely be the tapering of its bond-buying programme, which may be announced in late August at the annual Jackson Hole conference, with actual tapering beginning no earlier than the first quarter of 2022.
The path of U.S. fiscal policy is harder to decipher given strained bipartisanship and the narrowness of the Democratic majority in the Congress. A traditional infrastructure bill appears likely to get passed with bipartisan support, but the push for non-traditional forms of infrastructure—and the taxes to pay for all the added spending—will depend on whether the Democrats in the Senate can come to terms with each other.
The combination of above-average economic growth, significantly higher inflation than seen in the past decade, a fiscal policy that expands the size of federal government spending, and extreme monetary ease aimed at suppressing interest rates is the perfect backdrop for risk assets—and the creation of speculative bubbles.
The relative success of the U.S. vaccination effort and the country’s state-by-state response has resulted in a significantly stronger economy this year than in other major developed countries. Fortunately, injection rates have been accelerating in Europe and Japan. We anticipate other advanced economies will record strong economic results in the second half of the year and into 2022, exceeding the pace of growth in the U.S.
Although economists correctly point out that the U.S. has employed direct fiscal measures (emergency spending, income support and tax breaks) more aggressively than any other nation, other countries have used different tactics that far exceed the U.S. effort.
Several European nations and Japan have relied on equity injections, loans and guarantees. Italy (35% of gross domestic product), Japan and Germany (both at 28%) are the most notable, according to the International Monetary Fund. In the eurozone, some of these loan commitments have only just begun to flow. Italy and Spain are big beneficiaries of the eurozone’s €750 billion in loans and grants as part of the so-called NextGenerationEU program.
The ECB also seems dedicated to maintaining its pandemic-related monetary support at least through March 2022. As a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP), the ECB’s balance sheet has risen more than 25% since the beginning of the COVID-19 crisis, more than any other major central bank besides the BOJ (30%). The ECB’s actions have succeeded in keeping peripheral Europe’s sovereign bond yields well behaved through the crisis period.
While the U.S., the U.K. and Canada seem to be enduring a much sharper inflationary increase than Japan or the eurozone, the latter two are probably relieved to have a respite from the deflationary pressures that have afflicted their economies for many years. There seems little reason for the ECB or BOJ to join the Fed when it comes to discussing a near-term reduction in asset purchases, much less raising their policy rates ahead of the U.S.
We do not see much sign that the Fed’s shift toward an earlier lift-off in rates will lead to a 2013-style “taper tantrum” among emerging economies. A strong U.S. dollar would certainly threaten the bull market in commodity prices.
While we are still bullish on the outlook for commodities, we are watching price trends carefully. Commodity prices of all types have enjoyed a spectacular run since March 2020 and were already in the process of consolidating or correcting in the weeks before the Fed revised its views.
We remain optimistic that the more cyclical and value-oriented areas within emerging markets will bounce back from their recent stumble. But there are near-term challenges besides the shift in perceptions about Fed policy and the future course of the U.S. dollar and commodity prices. Credit growth has decelerated significantly in China, similar to the slowdowns recorded in 2013 and 2018—years when the performance of emerging markets was less than stellar.
Another potential source of market volatility could stem from the increasingly fraught relationship between China and the U.S. and its allies. If there is any consensus in Washington nowadays, it is focused on countering China’s growing economic and military strength; although market participants have mostly managed to look past political tensions to date.
Fundamentally, emerging markets continue to look relatively cheap versus most other regions. The forward price-to-earnings multiple of the MSCI Emerging Markets Index is still selling at a 36.4% discount to that of the MSCI USA Index. Outside the March-to-April 2020 low point, this is as cheap a relative multiple against the U.S. as seen at any time in the past 16 years.
We are counting on advanced economies to take up the slack while vaccines ramp up in developing countries. There has been a tremendous amount of excess savings and pent-up demand in North America and Europe. That said, as we’ve witnessed with the surge in new cases driven by the Delta variant, the possibility of regional spikes cannot be dismissed. If severe enough, markets could switch back to a decidedly risk-off position.
As vaccination rates slow in the developed world, more shots are becoming available to the rest of the world. We expect a rolling reopening of the global economy that will extend well into 2022. This wave of recovery could resemble a prolonged up-cycle that keeps the pressure on supply chains, leading to continued shortages of goods and labor. Investor faith in the “transitory inflation” narrative probably will be tested as we head into year end and enter 2022.DOWNLOAD THE FULL COMMENTARY
1Individual holdings will differ between strategies. Not representative of our passive strategies.
Glossary of Financial Terms
- Asset-Backed Securities (ABS): ABS are securities created from pools of loans or accounts receivable such as credit cards, auto loans and mortgage loans.
- Bear market: A bear market refers to a market environment in which prices are generally falling (or are expected to fall) and investor confidence is low.
- Bubble: A bubble occurs when excessive speculation leads to a drastic increase in asset prices, leaving them at risk to collapse.
- Bull market: A bull market refers to a market environment in which prices are generally rising (or are expected to rise) and investor confidence is high.
- Cyclical stocks: Cyclical stocks or sectors are those whose performance is closely tied to the economic environment and business cycle. Managers with a pro-cyclical market view tend to favor stocks that are more sensitive to movements in the broad market and therefore tend to have more volatile performance.
- Delta variant: The B.1.617.2 (delta) variant of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), arose during the sharp surge in cases in India during spring 2021 and has now been detected across the globe, including notable increases in cases in the U.K. and U.S.
- Fiscal policy: Fiscal policy relates to decisions about government revenues and outlays, like taxation and economic stimulus.
- Fiscal stimulus: Fiscal stimulus refers to government spending intended to provide economic support.
- Forward price-to-earnings (PE) ratio: The forward PE ratio is equal to the market capitalization of a stock or index divided by forecasted earnings over the next 12 months. The higher the PE ratio, the more the market is willing to pay for each dollar of annual earnings.
- Hawk: Hawk refers to a central bank policy advisor who has a negative view of inflation and its economic impact and thus tends to favor higher interest rates.
- Inflation-Protected Securities: Inflation-protected securities are typically indexed to an inflationary gauge to protect investors from the decline in the purchasing power of their money. The principal value of an inflation-protected security typically rises as inflation rises, while the interest payment varies with the adjusted principal value of the bond. The principal amount is typically protected so that investors do not risk receiving less than the originally invested principal.
- Monetary policy: Monetary policy relates to decisions by central banks to influence the amount of money and credit in the economy by managing the level of benchmark interest rates and the purchase or sale of securities. Central banks typically make policy decisions based on their mandates to target specific levels or ranges for inflation and employment.
- Mortgage-Backed Securities: Mortgage-Backed Securities (MBS) are pools of mortgage loans packaged together and sold to the public. They are usually structured in tranches that vary by risk and expected return.
- NextGenerationEU: NextGenerationEU is an economic recovery fund established by the EU and totaling more than €800 billion projected to be spent between 2021 and 2027. The centerpiece of the programme is a €723.8 billion facility for loans and grants to EU countries for investments.
- OPEC+: OPEC+ combines OPEC—a permanent intergovernmental organization of 13 oil-exporting developing nations that coordinates and unifies the petroleum policies of its member countries—with Russia, a major oil exporter, to make collective high-level decisions about oil production levels.
- Pandemic Emergency Purchase Programme (PEPP): PEPP is a temporary asset purchase programme of private and public sector securities established by the ECB to counter the risks to monetary policy transmission and the outlook for the euro area posed by the COVID-19 outbreak.
- Quantitative easing: Quantitative easing refers to expansionary efforts by central banks to help increase the supply of money in the economy.
- Summary of Economic Projections: The Fed’s Summary of Economic Projections (SEP) is based on economic projections collected from each member of the Fed Board of Governors and each Fed Bank president on a quarterly basis.
- Taper tantrum: Taper tantrum describes the 2013 surge in U.S. Treasury yields, resulting from the U.S. Federal Reserve’s announcement of future tapering of its policy of quantitative easing.
- Transitory inflation: Transitory inflation refers to a temporary increase in the rate of inflation.
- Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (TIPS): TIPS are sovereign securities issued by the U.S. Treasury that are indexed to an inflationary gauge to protect investors from the decline in the purchasing power of their money. The principal value of TIPS rise as inflation rises, while the interest payment varies with the adjusted principal value of the bond. The principal amount is protected so that investors do not risk receiving less than the originally invested principal.
- Yield: Yield is a general term for the expected return, in percentage or basis points (one basis point is 0.01%), of a fixed-income investment.
- Yield curve: The yield curve represents differences in yields across a range of maturities of bonds of the same issuer or credit rating (likelihood of default). A steeper yield curve represents a greater difference between the yields. A flatter curve indicates the yields are closer together.
Index and Benchmark Descriptions
All indexes are quoted in gross performance unless otherwise indicated.
- The Bloomberg Barclays 1-10 Year US TIPS Index measures the performance of inflation-protected public obligations of the U.S. Treasury that have a remaining maturity of 1 to 10 years.
- The Bloomberg Barclays US Asset Backed Securities (ABS) Index measures the performance of ABS with the following collateral types: credit and charge card, auto and utility loans. All securities have an average life of at least one year.
- The Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate Index is an unmanaged market-capitalization-weighted benchmark, tracks the performance of investment-grade fixed-income securities denominated in 13 currencies. The Index reflects reinvestment of all distributions and changes in market prices.
- The Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate ex-Treasury Index is an unmanaged market index representative of the total-return performance of ex-Treasury major world bond markets.
- The Bloomberg Barclays Global Treasury Index is composed of those securities included in the Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate Bond Index that are Treasury securities.
- The Bloomberg Barclays US Corporate Bond Index is a broad-based benchmark that measures the investment-grade, fixed-rate, taxable corporate bond market.
- The Bloomberg Barclays US Mortgage Backed Securities (MBS) Index measures the performance of investment-grade, fixed-rate, mortgage-backed, pass-through securities of Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA), Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA) and Freddie Mac (FHLMC).
- The Bloomberg Barclays US Treasury Index is an unmanaged index composed of U.S. Treasurys.
- The ICE BofA U.S. High Yield Constrained Index contains all securities in The ICE BofA U.S. High Yield Index but caps exposure to individual issuers at 2%.
- The ICE BofA U.S. High Yield Index tracks the performance of below-investment-grade, U.S. dollar-denominated corporate bonds publicly issued in the U.S. domestic market.
- The Chicago Board Options Exchange Volatility Index (VIX) tracks the expected volatility in the S&P 500 Index over the next 30 days. A higher number indicates greater volatility.
- CBOE Volatility Index (VIX Index): The VIX Index tracks the expected volatility in the S&P 500 Index over the next 30 days. A higher number indicates greater volatility.
- The Dow Jones Industrial Average is a widely followed market indicator based on a price-weighted average of 30 blue-chip New York Stock Exchange stocks that are selected by editors of The Wall Street Journal.
- The Employment Cost Index is a quarterly economic series published by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics that details the growth of total employee compensation. The index tracks movement in the cost of labor, as measured by wages and benefits, at all levels of a company.
- The FTSE All-Share Index represents 98% to 99% of U.K. equity market capitalization. The Index aggregates the FTSE 100, FTSE 250 and FTSE Small Cap Indexes.
- The JPMorgan EMBI Global Diversified Index tracks the performance of external debt instruments (including U.S. dollar-denominated and other external-currency-denominated Brady bonds, loans, eurobonds and local-market instruments) in the emerging markets.
- JPMorgan GBI-EM Global Diversified Index tracks the performance of debt instruments issued in domestic currencies by emerging-market governments.
- The MSCI ACWI Index is a market-capitalization-weighted index composed of over 2,000 companies, representing the market structure of 48 developed- and emerging-market countries in North and South America, Europe, Africa and the Pacific Rim. The Index is calculated with net dividends reinvested in U.S. dollars.
- The MSCI ACWI ex-USA Index includes both developed- and emerging-market countries, excluding the U.S.
- The MSCI Emerging Markets Index is a free float-adjusted market-capitalization-weighted index designed to measure the performance of global emerging-market equities.
- The MSCI Emerging Markets Latin America Index captures large- and mid-cap representation across five emerging-market countries in Latin America.
- The MSCI EMU (European Economic and Monetary Union) Index is a free float-adjusted market-capitalization-weighted index that is designed to measure the equity market performance of countries within EMU. The Index consists of the following 10 developed-market country indexes: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal and Spain.
- The MSCI Europe ex-UK Index is a free float-adjusted market-capitalization-weighted index that captures large- and mid-cap representation across developed-market countries in Europe excluding the UK.
- The MSCI Frontier Emerging Markets Index is a free float-adjusted market capitalization index designed to serve as a benchmark covering all countries from the MSCI Frontier Markets Index and the lower size spectrum of the MSCI Emerging Markets Index.
- The MSCI Pacific ex Japan Index captures large- and mid-cap representation across four of five developed-market countries in the Pacific region (excluding Japan).
- The MSCI Japan Index is designed to measure the performance of the large- and mid-capitalization stocks in Japan.
- MSCI United Kingdom Index is designed to measure the performance of the large- and mid-cap segments of the U.K. market.
- MSCI USA Index measures the performance of the large- and mid-cap segments of the U.S. market.
- The MSCI World Index is a free float-adjusted market-capitalization-weighted index designed to measure the equity market performance of developed markets. The Index consists of the following 23 developed-market country indexes: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the U.K. and the U.S.
- The MSCI World ex-USA Index is a free float-adjusted market-capitalization-weighted index that is designed to measure the equity market performance of developed markets, excluding the U.S.
- The NASDAQ Composite Index is a market-value-weighted index of all common stocks listed on the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations (NASDAQ) system.
- Russell 1000 Growth Index measures the performance of the large-cap growth segment of the U.S. equity universe. It includes those Russell 1000 Index companies with higher price-to-book ratios and higher forecasted growth values.
- The Russell 2000 Growth Index measures the performance of the small-cap growth segment of the U.S. equity universe. It includes those Russell 2000 Index companies with higher price-to-value ratios and higher forecasted growth values.
- The Russell 1000 Value Index measures the performance of the large-cap value segment of the U.S. equity universe. It includes those Russell 1000 Index companies with lower price-to-book ratios and lower expected growth values.
- The Russell 2000 Value Index measures the performance of small-cap value segment of the U.S. equity universe. It includes those Russell 2000 Index companies with lower price-to-book ratios and lower forecasted growth values.
- The Shenzhen Stock Exchange Composite Index tracks performance of A share stocks (which are denominated in renminbi, the local currency) and B share stocks (which are denominated in Hong Kong dollars, an offshore currency) on China’s Shenzhen Stock Exchange.
- The S&P 500 Index is a market-capitalization-weighted index that consists of 500 publicly-traded large U.S. companies that are considered representative of the broad U.S. stock market.
- The TOPIX, also known as the Tokyo Stock Price Index, is a capitalization-weighted index of all companies listed on the First Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange. The Index is supplemented by the subindexes of the 33 industry sectors. The Index calculation excludes temporary issues and preferred stocks, and has a base value of 100 as of January 4, 1968.
This material represents an assessment of the market environment at a specific point in time and is not intended to be a forecast of future events, or a guarantee of future results. This information should not be relied upon by the reader as research or investment advice regarding SEI’s portfolios or any stock in particular, nor should it be construed as a recommendation to purchase or sell a security, including futures contracts.
There are risks involved with investing, including loss of principal. International investments may involve risk of capital loss from unfavorable fluctuation in currency values, from differences in generally accepted accounting principles or from economic or political instability in other nations. Emerging markets involve heightened risks related to the same factors as well as increased volatility and lower trading volume. Narrowly focused investments and smaller companies typically exhibit higher volatility. Bonds and bond funds will decrease in value as interest rates rise. High-yield bonds involve greater risks of default or downgrade and are more volatile than investment-grade securities, due to the speculative nature of their investments.
Diversification may not protect against market risk. Past performance does not guarantee future results. Index returns are for illustrative purposes only and do not represent actual portfolio performance. Index returns do not reflect any management fees, transaction costs or expenses. One cannot invest directly in an index.
Information provided by SEI Investments Management Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of SEI Investments Company (SEI).